Ein Quasar (abgek. auch QSO für Quasi-stellar object) ist der aktive Kern einer Galaxie, der im . An ultraluminous quasar with a twelve-billion-solar-mass black hole at redshift In: Nature. Band , Nr. , Februar , S. –5, . Simulation of gas cloud approaching the black hole at the centre of the Milky Way . A gas Künstlerische Darstellung des Quasars 3C (Alternativversion). Artist impression of a quasar with a black hole in a brown and yellow disk of gas and dust, which swirls as it is drawn in by the gravitational pull of the black hole.
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Quasar Black Hole VideoMix - Why Quasars are so Awesome
Quasars are powered by supermassive black holes in the centers of galaxies — in this case, a black hole with almost a billion times the mass of the Sun.
Matter such as gas falling onto the black hole will form an ultra-hot accretion disk before falling in, making the whole setup one of the most luminous objects in the universe: The newly discovered quasar shines as brightly as 40 trillion suns.
Distant quasars are valuable sources of information about the early universe. For one, they can be used to "X-ray" the universe over large distances.
Quasar light can be decoded to yield information about the hydrogen atoms the light has encountered along its billion-light-year-journey.
The light of the newly discovered most distant quasar yet carries crucial information regarding one of the earliest phases of the universe, the so-called reionization phase.
Schematic representation of the look back into history that is possible by the discovery of the most distant quasar yet Schematic representation of the look back into history that is possible by the discovery of the most distant quasar yet known.
The observation using one of the Magellan telescope bottom left allows us to reconstruct information about the so-called reionization epoch "bubbles" top-half right that followed the Big Bang top right.
About , years after the Big Bang, the universe had cooled down sufficiently to form hydrogen atoms. Some hundreds of millions of years later, the energetic ultraviolet radiation of the first stars and the accretion disks of the first black holes reionized nearly all of the hydrogen in the universe, separating the electrons from the hydrogen nuclei protons.
The timing and specifics of this cosmic reionization are still an open question. The newly discovered quasar adds a crucial data point: Its light shows that a significant fraction of hydrogen was still neutral million years after the Big Bang.
This favours models which predict that reionization happened comparatively late in the history of the universe. Quasars as young as this one also yield valuable information about galaxy evolution.
For instance, at almost a billion solar masses, the quasar's central black hole is comparatively massive. Explaining how such a massive black hole could have formed in such a comparatively short amount of available time is a challenge for models of supermassive black hole formation, and effectively rules out some of those models.
With those observations, the astronomers were able to identify and examine the quasar's host galaxy. Although the galaxy can be no more than million years old, it has already formed an enormous amount of dust, and heavy chemical elements.
This means it must already have formed a large amount of stars. Again, this is a challenge for models, this time for models of galaxy evolution.
Reionization, black hole evolution, galaxy evolution — even with these first observations, the newly discovered quasar has given astronomers key information about cosmic history.
Follow-up observations, as well as a search for similar quasars, are on track to put our picture of early cosmic history onto a solid footing.
Intermediate If nothing can escape a black hole, why do some black holes have jets? Intermediate Are black holes spherical? Intermediate Why are accretion disks flat?
Intermediate Is dark energy affected by black holes? Intermediate Does the singularity in a black hole create a new Universe?
Intermediate What is the density of a black hole? Advanced Do supermassive black holes cause galaxy rotation? Advanced Why aren't accretion disks around giant stars as hot as accretion disks around black holes?
Advanced How are galaxies and solar systems similar? Could one be made close to us? Beginner Do black holes die?
Beginner Can a black hole come back to the visual universe through a "little bang"? Intermediate What happened to all the black holes that were around in the early universe?
Intermediate What causes gamma ray bursts? Intermediate Observation of Black Holes How are black holes discovered? Intermediate Where is the nearest black hole?
Intermediate Are names given to black holes? Advanced Could the Universe's dark matter be made up of black holes? Beginner What happens to spacetime inside a black hole?
Intermediate What is a wormhole? Intermediate What is a white hole? Advanced How do gravitons escape black holes to tell the universe about their gravity?
Beginner Could an astronaut or satellite fall into a black hole that we didn't know about? Beginner Can a person go into a black hole and come out alive?
Beginner What happens to the material that has been sucked into a black hole? Intermediate Is there any limitation to what a black hole can "suck" in?
Intermediate What would you see from inside a black hole? Intermediate Can you see the future as you fall into a black hole? Intermediate Could you escape from a black hole if you were able to go faster than the speed of light?
Intermediate What would happen if a supermassive black hole came close to the Earth? Advanced Why doesn't dark matter fall into a black hole?
Advanced How long would it take for a mini-black hole to eat the Earth? Beginner What happens when an antimatter black hole collides with a matter blackhole?
Intermediate Is time travel possible using merging black holes? Intermediate What happens when two black holes get too close? Intermediate Quasars What are quasars made of?
Beginner How powerful are quasars? Intermediate Can I see a quasar? The goal is the simulation of black holes and other extreme spacetimes to gain a better understanding of Relativity, and the physics of exotic objects in the distant cosmos.
Interactice exploration of black holes, with many animations and astronomical images. Has a great interactive section on black holes.
Black Holes - Out With a Bang: This site is produced by the Valdosta State University Planetarium and has lots of nice pictures, animations and explanations.
Virtual trips to Black Holes: Slighly more technical, but some fun movies. Also includes trips to neutron stars. How to ask a question?
What is the three-body problem? Do galaxies that are receding from us faster than the speed of light disappear from our observations?
Intermediate Why are astronomers interested in gravitational waves? Intermediate Can two galaxies move away from each other faster than the speed of light?
Intermediate What is a graviton? Intermediate Why are there high tides during a Full Moon? Intermediate Why is Neptune still considered a planet when Pluto crosses its orbit?
Intermediate Could there be objects orbiting interior to Mercury? Intermediate Have the inner planets cleared their neighborhood?
Intermediate What caused the Big Bang and created the Universe? Beginner If spacetime is curved, is it possible for us to look into space and see light from Earth from long ago?
What should I know about the upcoming Solar Eclipse? Intermediate What do I need to do to become an astronomer?
Beginner What's the difference between astronomy and astrology? Beginner Why is looking out into space the same as looking back in time? How are light and heavy elements formed?
Advanced What color is each planet? Intermediate Can artificial gravity be created in space? Intermediate Are there telescopes that can see the flag and lunar rover on the Moon?
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Beginner Can artificial gravity be created in space? Intermediate How far is each planet from Earth? Intermediate At what speed does the Earth move around the Sun?
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It is impossible to observe them directly, and astronomers had no way to test their theories until Hubble arrived. The high resolution of Hubble made it possible to see the effects of the gravitational attraction of some of these objects on their surroundings.
Hubble has also proved that super massive black holes are most likely present at the centres of most, if not all, large galaxies. This has important implications for the theories of galaxy formation and evolution.
Black holes exist in different sizes. Stellar black holes, which are around the mass of our Sun, form when very large stars explode as supernovae at the end of their lives.
The star's core collapses as the outer layers are blown away, leaving a small but extremely dense ball. Supermassive black holes, many millions of times the mass of our Sun, are of more mysterious origin, and are found at the centre of galaxies.
It is in the study of super massive black holes that Hubble has made its biggest contribution. Before Hubble, quasars were considered to be isolated star-like objects of a mysterious nature.
Hubble has observed several quasars and found that they all reside at galactic centres. Today most scientists believe that super massive black holes at the galactic centres are the "engines" that power the quasars.
Prior to the launch of Hubble a handful of black hole candidates had been studied but the limitations of ground based astronomy were such that irrefutable evidence for their existence could not be obtained.
Black holes themselves, by definition, cannot be observed, since no light can escape from them.
However, astronomers can study the effects of black holes on their surroundings. These include powerful jets of electrons that travel huge distances, many thousands of light years from the centres of the galaxies.
Matter falling towards a black hole can also be seen emitting bright light and if the speed of this falling matter can be measured , it is possible to determine the mass of the black hole itself.
This is not an easy task and it requires the extraordinary capabilities of Hubble to carry out these sophisticated measurements. Hubble observations have been fundamental in the study of the jets and discs of matter around a number of black holes.
Accurate measurements of the masses have been possible for the first time. Hubble has found black holes 3 billion times as massive as our Sun at the centre of some galaxies.
Light and other radiation cannot escape from within the event horizon of a black hole, but the energy produced by a quasar is generated outside the black hole, by gravitational stresses and immense friction within the material nearest to the black hole, as it orbits and falls inward.
Central masses of 10 5 to 10 9 solar masses have been measured in quasars by using reverberation mapping. Several dozen nearby large galaxies, including our own Milky Way galaxy, that do not have an active center and do not show any activity similar to a quasar, are confirmed to contain a similar supermassive black hole in their nuclei galactic center.
Thus it is now thought that all large galaxies have a black hole of this kind, but only a small fraction have sufficient matter in the right kind of orbit at their center to become active and power radiation in such a way to be seen as quasars.
This also explains why quasars were more common in the early universe, as this energy production ends when the supermassive black hole consumes all of the gas and dust near it.
This means that it is possible that most galaxies, including the Milky Way, have gone through an active stage, appearing as a quasar or some other class of active galaxy that depended on the black hole mass and the accretion rate, and are now quiescent because they lack a supply of matter to feed into their central black holes to generate radiation.
The matter accreting onto the black hole is unlikely to fall directly in, but will have some angular momentum around the black hole that will cause the matter to collect into an accretion disc.
Quasars may also be ignited or re-ignited when normal galaxies merge and the black hole is infused with a fresh source of matter. In fact, it has been suggested that a quasar could form when the Andromeda Galaxy collides with our own Milky Way galaxy in approximately 3—5 billion years.
In the s, unified models were developed in which quasars were classified as a particular kind of active galaxy , and a consensus emerged that in many cases it is simply the viewing angle that distinguishes them from other active galaxies, such as blazars and radio galaxies.
More than , quasars are known, most from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. All observed quasar spectra have redshifts between 0.
Applying Hubble's law to these redshifts, it can be shown that they are between million  and Because of the great distances to the farthest quasars and the finite velocity of light, they and their surrounding space appear as they existed in the very early universe.
The power of quasars originates from supermassive black holes that are believed to exist at the core of most galaxies.
The Doppler shifts of stars near the cores of galaxies indicate that they are rotating around tremendous masses with very steep gravity gradients, suggesting black holes.
Although quasars appear faint when viewed from Earth, they are visible from extreme distances, being the most luminous objects in the known universe.
It has an average apparent magnitude of In a universe containing hundreds of billions of galaxies, most of which had active nuclei billions of years ago but only seen today, it is statistically certain that thousands of energy jets should be pointed toward the Earth, some more directly than others.
In many cases it is likely that the brighter the quasar, the more directly its jet is aimed at the Earth. Such quasars are called blazars.
Quasars were much more common in the early universe than they are today. This discovery by Maarten Schmidt in was early strong evidence against Steady State cosmology and in favor of the Big Bang cosmology.
Quasars show the locations where massive black holes are growing rapidly via accretion. These black holes grow in step with the mass of stars in their host galaxy in a way not understood at present.
One idea is that jets, radiation and winds created by the quasars, shut down the formation of new stars in the host galaxy, a process called 'feedback'.
The jets that produce strong radio emission in some quasars at the centers of clusters of galaxies are known to have enough power to prevent the hot gas in those clusters from cooling and falling onto the central galaxy.
Quasars' luminosities are variable, with time scales that range from months to hours. This means that quasars generate and emit their energy from a very small region, since each part of the quasar would have to be in contact with other parts on such a time scale as to allow the coordination of the luminosity variations.
This would mean that a quasar varying on a time scale of a few weeks cannot be larger than a few light-weeks across. The emission of large amounts of power from a small region requires a power source far more efficient than the nuclear fusion that powers stars.
Stellar explosions such as supernovas and gamma-ray bursts , and direct matter - antimatter annihilation, can also produce very high power output, but supernovae only last for days, and the universe does not appear to have had large amounts of antimatter at the relevant times.
Since quasars exhibit all the properties common to other active galaxies such as Seyfert galaxies , the emission from quasars can be readily compared to those of smaller active galaxies powered by smaller supermassive black holes.
The brightest known quasars devour solar masses of material every year. The largest known is estimated to consume matter equivalent to Earths per minute.
Quasar luminosities can vary considerably over time, depending on their surroundings. Since it is difficult to fuel quasars for many billions of years, after a quasar finishes accreting the surrounding gas and dust, it becomes an ordinary galaxy.
Radiation from quasars is partially 'nonthermal' i. Extremely high energies might be explained by several mechanisms see Fermi acceleration and Centrifugal mechanism of acceleration.
Quasars can be detected over the entire observable electromagnetic spectrum including radio , infrared , visible light , ultraviolet , X-ray and even gamma rays.
Most quasars are brightest in their rest-frame near-ultraviolet wavelength of A minority of quasars show strong radio emission, which is generated by jets of matter moving close to the speed of light.
When viewed downward, these appear as blazars and often have regions that seem to move away from the center faster than the speed of light superluminal expansion.
This is an optical illusion due to the properties of special relativity. Quasar redshifts are measured from the strong spectral lines that dominate their visible and ultraviolet emission spectra.
These lines are brighter than the continuous spectrum. They exhibit Doppler broadening corresponding to mean speed of several percent of the speed of light.
Fast motions strongly indicate a large mass. Emission lines of hydrogen mainly of the Lyman series and Balmer series , helium, carbon, magnesium, iron and oxygen are the brightest lines.
The atoms emitting these lines range from neutral to highly ionized, leaving it highly charged. This wide range of ionization shows that the gas is highly irradiated by the quasar, not merely hot, and not by stars, which cannot produce such a wide range of ionization.
Like all unobscured active galaxies, quasars can be strong X-ray sources. Radio-loud quasars can also produce X-rays and gamma rays by inverse Compton scattering of lower-energy photons by the radio-emitting electrons in the jet.
Quasars also provide some clues as to the end of the Big Bang 's reionization. More recent quasars show no absorption region but rather their spectra contain a spiky area known as the Lyman-alpha forest ; this indicates that the intergalactic medium has undergone reionization into plasma , and that neutral gas exists only in small clouds.
The intense production of ionizing ultraviolet radiation is also significant, as it would provide a mechanism for reionization to occur as galaxies form.
Quasars show evidence of elements heavier than helium , indicating that galaxies underwent a massive phase of star formation , creating population III stars between the time of the Big Bang and the first observed quasars.
Light from these stars may have been observed in using NASA 's Spitzer Space Telescope ,  although this observation remains to be confirmed.
The taxonomy of quasars includes various subtypes representing subsets of the quasar population having distinct properties. Because quasars are extremely distant, bright, and small in apparent size, they are useful reference points in establishing a measurement grid on the sky.
Because they are so distant, they are apparently stationary to our current technology, yet their positions can be measured with the utmost accuracy by very-long-baseline interferometry VLBI.
The positions of most are known to 0. A multiple-image quasar is a quasar whose light undergoes gravitational lensing , resulting in double, triple or quadruple images of the same quasar.
As quasars are rare objects, the probability of three or more separate quasars being found near the same location is very low.
The first true triple quasar was found in by observations at the W. Keck Observatory Mauna Kea , Hawaii. When astronomers discovered the third member, they confirmed that the sources were separate and not the result of gravitational lensing.
The first quadruple quasar was discovered in When two quasars are so nearly in the same direction as seen from Earth that they appear to be a single quasar but may be separated by the use of telescopes, they are referred to as a "double quasar", such as the Twin Quasar.
This configuration is similar to the optical double star. Two quasars, a "quasar pair", may be closely related in time and space, and be gravitationally bound to one another.
These may take the form of two quasars in the same galaxy cluster. This configuration is similar to two prominent stars in a star cluster.
A "binary quasar", may be closely linked gravitationally and form a pair of interacting galaxies. This configuration is similar to that of a binary star system.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the astronomical object. For other uses, see Quasar disambiguation.
It is not to be confused with quasi-star. Redshift , Metric expansion of space , and Universe. Reionization and Chronology of the Universe. Retrieved 4 July Retrieved 5 March Retrieved 6 December Explicit use of et al.
Most Distant Black Hole". The Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific. Retrieved 3 October Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific.
Retrieved 22 March Isodual theory of antimatter: Black hole models for active galactic nuclei , The University of Alabama. You Won't Feel a Thing".
Retrieved 20 November Relativity, Gravitation and Cosmology Illustrated ed.The presence of young quasars in the early Universe poses an interesting challenge for current models of the growth and formation of supermassive black holes, and puts stringent constraints on quasar and galaxy evolution theories. Quasar stellt neuen Entfernungsrekord auf Rainer Kayser More information can be found in our paper. Ernst Patzer Award Nur sehr kurzzeitig hell aufleuchtende Phänomene Supernova , Gammastrahlenblitz sind möglicherweise energiereicher. Zur Navigation springen Drücken Sie Enter. Subscribe Contact Site Map. This is the most distant black hole where such a measurement has been made. The X-rays are produced when a swirling accretion disk of gas and dust that surrounds the black hole creates a multimillion-degree cloud, or corona near the black hole. The very bright quasar appears at the centre of the picture and the outflow spreads about light-years out into the surrounding galaxy. Folgebeobachtungen sowie die Suche nach vergleichbar fernen Quasaren sollen unser Bild der frühen kosmischen Geschichte jetzt auf eine solide Basis stellen. Diese Datei und die Informationen unter dem roten Trennstrich werden aus dem zentralen Medienarchiv Wikimedia Commons eingebunden. From Wall to Web , Berlin Eine ähnliche Verknüpfung wie zwischen Quasaren und Blazaren wird zwischen Quasaren und Radiogalaxien vermutet, bei denen die Jetachse fast senkrecht zur Beobachtungsachse liegt. Die nachfolgenden anderen Wikis verwenden diese Datei: The larger the change in the spectrum, the closer the inner edge of the disk casino fuxx offnungszeiten be to the black hole. Nur sehr kurzzeitig hell aufleuchtende Phänomene SupernovaGammastrahlenblitz sind möglicherweise energiereicher. Künstlerische Darstellung eines Sterns, der nahe an einem supermassereichen Schwarzen Loch vorbeizieht. Eine ausführliche Beschreibung der Ergebnisse ist hier zu finden. The Centre of casino siteleri Galaxy.